The floor of Lake Superior northwest of the Keweenaw Peninsula has three zones of small-scale relief based on echogram character. The zones are roughly depth dependent. Zone A, located between the shore to about a 54-m depth, is generally smooth on the echogram and consists mainly of sand and boulder gravel deposits. Zone B, between about 54 and 165 m, has microroughness features with a 2- to 5-m relief and a 90- to 300-m spacing; the bottom consists of glacial till and lacustrine clay. Zone C, below depths of about 165 m, has narrow troughs with depths to 12 m and separation of 60 to 600 m; the bottom consists of lacustrine clay. The microrelief of Zone B consists of an intersecting network of grooves having widths of 5 to 75 m and lengths of as much as 1,950 m. Regular parallel features 15 to 30 m apart are also found in scattered areas of Zone B and the deepest parts of Zone A. Sand and boulder gravel deposits of Zone A may be beach and dune material of lower glacial-lake stages, and the border with Zone B may mark the lowest shoreline during the sequence of glacial lakes in the Superior basin. The grooves of Zone B were probably formed by scouring by icebergs during an earlier lake stage. Relief in Zone C probably was formed by a lacustrine process.
↵Author's Present Address (Berkson): Acoustical Oceanography Division, Code 7500, U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, Washington, D.C. 20373
- Geological Society of America