A combined sequence of geomorphic features and processes occurring at the outer edges of badland butte micropediments can lead to minor topographic inversions by which buttes are transformed into depressions. Evidence from field observation, profiling, spot measurements, and air-photo analysis shows that buttes can be partly or fully ringed by moats that developed at the toe of micropediments. Moat downcutting destroys or regrades micropediments to base levels so low that the very gently inclined micropediment surfaces, developed at the expense of the buttes, fail to rise back up to the level of surrounding land-surfaces. As a consequence, shallow depressions appear to replace some buttes in the study area.
- Geological Society of America